CORONAVIRUS:

(Covid-19):

Introduction:

Corona Virus:

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans.

Is there a difference between coronavirus and Covid-19?

COVID-19 is one strain of the coronavirus.

 Although those four strains of the coronavirus cause mild respiratory infections, there are three strains of the virus that cause more virulent infections.

What is the virus called which causes the coronavirus disease?

COVID-19 is caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2.

How many Different Human Coronaviruses are there?

Six species of human coronaviruses are known, with one species subdivided into two different strains, making seven strains of human coronaviruses altogether.

How Dangerous is the Coronavirus Disease?

Although for most people COVID-19 causes only mild illness, it can make some people very ill. More rarely, the disease can be fatal. Older people, and those with pre- existing medical conditions (such as high blood pressure, heart problems or diabetes) appear to be more vulnerable.

Human Coronavirus Types:

  • 229E (alpha)
  • NL63 (alpha)
  • OC43 (beta)
  • HKU1 (beta).
    • MERS-CoV, a beta virus that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).
    • SARS-CoV, a beta virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
    • SARS-CoV-2, which causes CCOVID-19

There are many types of coronavirus. Some cause trusted Source mild illnesses, such as the common cold. Others can cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), which can be life threatening.

Many coronaviruses are present in animals but do not affect humans. Sometimes, however, a virus mutates in a way that allows it to infect humans. Scientists call these human coronaviruses, or “HCoVs.” The new coronavirus has been responsible for millions of infections globally, and it has caused more than 2 million deaths. The mortality rate varies from country to country. In the United States, it is around 1.7%.

Many source believe SARS-CoV-2 first infected bats before spreading to other animals, including humans. Some of the first people with COVID-19 had links to a live animal and seafood market.

Overall, however, there is little conclusive information about the origins of the virus. Scientists are still investigating its source and initial pattern of spreading.

Many people with COVID-19 experience a relatively mild form of the disease that does not require specialist treatment. Others develop severe breathing problems and need to spend time in the hospital. In some cases, it is fatal.

Some people who do not have severe symptoms initially go on to develop health issues that continue for weeks or months, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source.

People with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 symptoms include older adults and those with underlying medical conditions, including high blood pressure, heart and lung problems, diabetes, and cancer. Most children with COVID-19 have mild or no symptoms. Fewer children have developed COVID-19 than adults. That said, infants and children with certain medical conditions may have an increased risk of severe illness and death.

There may also be a higher risk of severe COVID-19 during pregnancy, as well as an increased risk of issues such as preterm birth. However, the role of the virus in these circumstances remains unclear.

Symptoms of COVID-19:

People may start to experience COVID-19 symptoms 2–14 daysTrusted Source after exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Symptoms of COVID-19 also include:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing
  • Sore throat
  • Congestion or a runny nose
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Loss of taste or smell
  • Nausea, vomiting, or both
  • Diarrhea

Tests can detect the infection, even if there are no symptoms.

Waves of Corona Virus:

Many countries have seen a two-wave pattern in reported cases of coronavirus disease-19 during the 2020 pandemic, with a first wave during spring followed by the current second wave in late summer and autumn. Empirical data show that the characteristics of the effects of the virus do vary between the two periods.

Differences in age range and severity of the disease have been reported, although the comparative characteristics of the two waves still remain largely unknown. Those characteristics are compared in this study using data from two equal periods of 3 and a half months.

  • The first period, between 15th March and 30th June, corresponding to the entire first wave, and the second, between 1st July and 15th October, corresponding to part of the second wave, still present at the time of writing this article. Two hundred and four patients were hospitalized during the first period, and 264 during the second period.
  • Patients in the second wave were younger and the duration of hospitalization and case fatality rate were lower than those in the first wave. In the second wave, there were more children, and pregnant and post-partum women. The most frequent signs and symptoms in both waves were fever, dyspnea, pneumonia, and cough, and the most relevant comorbidities were cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and chronic neurological diseases. Patients from the second wave more frequently presented renal and gastrointestinal symptoms, were more often treated with non-invasive mechanical ventilation and corticoids, and less often with invasive mechanical ventilation, conventional oxygen therapy and anticoagulants. Several differences in mortality risk factors were also observed.
  • Health experts have expressed their concerns over the rapid spread of coronavirus among children during the third wave of the pandemic, the third wave had started and cited the spread of the coronavirus variant from the United Kingdom.

Preventions from Covid-19:

Protect yourself and others around you by knowing the facts and taking appropriate precautions. Follow advice provided by your local health authority.

To prevent the spread of COVID-19:

  • Clean your hands often. Use soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand rub.
  • Maintain a safe distance from anyone who is coughing or sneezing.
  • Wear a mask when physical distancing is not possible.
  • Don’t touch your eyes, nose or mouth.
  • Cover your nose and mouth with your bent elbow or a tissue when you cough or sneeze.
  • Stay home if you feel unwell.
  • If you have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention.

Calling in advance allows your healthcare provider to quickly direct you to the right health facility. This protects you, and prevents the spread of viruses and other infections.

Steps that will Avoid Corona Virus:

Proper nutrition and hydration are vital. People who eat a well-balanced diet tend to be healthier with stronger immune systems and lower risk of chronic illnesses and infectious diseases. So you should eat a variety of fresh and unprocessed foods every day to get the vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre, protein and antioxidants your body needs. Drink enough water. Avoid sugar, fat and salt to significantly lower your risk of overweight, obesity, heart disease, stroke, diabetes and certain types of cancer.

1. Don’t Compromise on Sleep:

Good snooze time for 7-8 hours is the best way to help your body build immunity; lesser sleep will leave you tired and impair your brain activity. The lack of sleep will prevent the body from resting and this will impair other bodily functions that will have a direct impact on your immunity.

2. Stay Hydrated:

Drink up to 8-10 glasses of water every day, to stay hydrated. Hydration will help flush out the toxins from the body and lower the chances of flu. Other alternatives include juices made of citrus fruits and coconut water, to beat the heat.

3. Don’t Skip on Exercise:

A good diet should be followed by an exercise routine. Remember to exercise regularly; even light exercise will go a long way in releasing the toxins from your body. It is recommended to exercise for 30 to 45 minutes, depending on your stamina. If you have not started exercising yet, then it is a good time to start.

4. Destress Yourself:

These are testing times, and a prolonged period of staying indoors has its implications on your mental wellbeing. The growing anxiety around the pandemic is another concern that is affecting millions across the globe.

5. Eat Balanced Diet:

You can eat supplements rich in omega 3 & 6 fatty acids for your daily dose, if stepping out to buy groceries is not an option during social distancing. Some natural immunity supplements include ginger, gooseberries (amla) and turmeric. There are several herbs that help in boosting immunity like garlic, Basel leaves and Black cumin. Certain seeds and nuts like sunflower seeds, Flax seed, pumpkin seeds and melon seeds are excellent sources of protein and vitamin E.

Probiotics like Yoghurt, Yakult and fermented food are also excellent sources to rejuvenate the composition of gut bacteria, which is important for nutrient absorption by the body. These are good options for the older generation too.