Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence. Evidence, Experiment and/or observation as benchmarks for testing hypotheses.

You can say that, Science is the study of the nature and behaviour of natural things and the knowledge that we obtain about them. A science is a particular branch of science such as physics, chemistry, or biology. Physics is the best example of a science which has developed strong, abstract theories.

Father of Science:

Galileo Galilei is known as the father of science.

Galileo was a natural philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician who made fundamental contributions to the sciences of motion, astronomy, and strength of materials and to the development of the scientific method. He also made revolutionary telescopic discoveries, including the four largest moons of Jupiter.

First Scientist of Science:

Aristotle is considered by many to be the first scientist, although the term postdates him by more than two millennia. In Greece in the fourth century BC, he pioneered the techniques of logic, observation, inquiry and demonstration.

According to Aristotle, a science is possible if and only if there are knowable objects. There cannot be a science of dragons, for example, because dragons do not exist and hence a ‘science’ of dragons would lack knowable objects and thus would not be a ‘science’.

Aristotle’s main influences were ancient philosophers, like Plato and Socrates, and his father, who was a doctor. He applied Socrates’ principals of logical thinking to the real world, which is why he is called the ‘father of scientific method’.

Science and it’s Influences:

Influence is the capacity or power of persons or things to be a compelling force on or produce effects on the actions, behavior, opinions, etc., of others.

Scientific knowledge can improve the quality of life at many different levels from the routine workings of our everyday lives to global issues. Science informs public policy and personal decisions on energy, conservation, agriculture, health, transportation, communication, defense, economics, leisure, and exploration.

How does society and culture influence science and technology?

Technology influences society through its products and processes. Social needs, attitudes, and values influence the direction of technological development. Science and technology have advanced through contributions of many different people, in different cultures, at different times in history.

Science Culture:

Scientific culture is a set of norms and practices and an ethos of honesty, openness, and continuous reflection, including how research quality is judged. Individual researchers and research institutions have the responsibility for developing a scientific culture.

Scientific activities are social activities, so scientific culture is the product of humans’ or particular groups of humans’ activities. The thinking patterns, values, behavioural norms and traditions of science formed in its history reflect its cultural connotation.

 Science’ as basic knowledge, source of information and foundation of systems; ‘Culture’ as a ‘settlement device’, harmonious combination of knowledge, practices, social organization conceived as the instrument of integration and processing of values, attitudes and designs.

Importance of Science Education:

Science education aims to increase people’s understanding of science and the construction of knowledge as well as to promote scientific literacy and responsible citizenship. We can use science communication to increase science-related knowledge among adults, in particular. Science education is the teaching and learning of science to non-scientists, such as school children, college students, or adults within the general public. The field of science education includes work in science content, science process (the scientific method), some social science, and some teaching pedagogy.

Things Science has Done for Us:

Science informs public policy and personal decisions on energy, conservation, agriculture, health, transportation, communication, defense, economics, leisure, and exploration. It’s almost impossible to overstate how many aspects of modern life are impacted by scientific knowledge. Like Janet, many people ask the same question of science. Sure, since the 16th century, science has given us electricity and anaesthetics, the internet and statins, the jumbo jet, vaccines and good anti-cancer drugs, the washing machine and the automobile.

Science and Our Life:

Science is involved in cooking, eating, breathing, driving, playing, etc. The fabric we wear, the brush and paste we use, the shampoo, the talcum powder, the oil we apply, everything is the consequence of advancement of science. Life is unimaginable without all this, as it has become a necessity. By making life easier, science has given man the chance to pursue societal concerns such as ethics, aesthetics, education, and justice; to create cultures; and to improve human conditions. But it has also placed us in the unique position of being able to destroy ourselves.

Science contributes to ensuring a longer and healthier life, monitors our health, provides medicine to cure our diseases, alleviates aches and pains, helps us to provide water for our basic needs  including our food, provides energy and makes life more fun, including sports, music and entertainment.

Goals of Science:

The goal of science is to learn how nature works by observing the natural and physical world, and to understand this world through research and experimentation. Science aims to build knowledge about the natural world. This knowledge is open to question and revision as we come up with new ideas and discover new evidence. Because it has been tested, scientific knowledge is reliable.

Think of the scientific method as having four goals (description, prediction, explanation and control). It is important to remember that these goals are the same for anything that can be studied via the scientific method (a chemical compound, a biological organism, or in the case of psychology, behavior ).

Science can be divided into different branches based on the subject of study. The physical sciences study the inorganic world and comprise the fields of astronomy, physics, chemistry, and the Earth sciences. The biological sciences such as biology and medicine study the organic world of life and its processes. Social sciences like anthropology and economics study the social and cultural aspects of human behaviour.

Science is based on research, which is commonly conducted by scientists working in academic and research institutions, government agencies, and companies. The practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, armaments, health care, public infrastructure, and environmental protection.